The Relationship Between Premature Myocardial Infarction with TC/HDL-C Ratio Subgroups in a Multiple Risk Factor Model
Introduction: So far, there is no evidence available to demonstrate the relationship between five subgroups of total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio with premature myocardial infarction (MI). Objective: We conducted a case control study to probe more features of the relation between TC/HDL-C ratio and the five subgroups of the ratio with myocardial infarction under 55 years and above it. Method: A hospital based case control study with incident cases was designed. Cases and controls were comprised of 523 under 55-year and 699 above 55-year documented newly diagnosed MI cases, respectively. Standardized clinical and para clinical method were used to ascertain disease and risk factors. Independent sample t-test, Pearson chi square test, Odds ratios and Mantel-Haenszel test and logistic regression analysis conducted to evaluate relationships. Results: This study enrolled 1222 MI cases. Patients with very low risk category of TC/HDL-C ratio estimated OR=0.18 with 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.04-0.72) for developing MI under 55 years. Patients who had low risk category of TC/HDL-C ratio having OR=0.26 95% CI (0.07-0.89). Low risk and very low risk categories of the TC/HDL-C ratio compare to high risk subgroup of the ratio demonstrate decreased risk of developing MI under 55 years p<0.05. Conclusion: Our study results can be translated as an aggressive treatment for lowering TC/HDL-C ratio in both general population and victims of coronary events. Mitigation of the level of TC/HDL-C ratio from low risk to very low risk category will attenuate the risk of MI under55 years about 8% which is the immediate clinical implication of our findings.
2. Ridker PM, Rifai N, Cook NR, Bradwin G, Buring JE. Non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I and B100, standard lipid measures, lipid ratios, and CRP as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. JAMA. 2005;294(3):326-33.
3. Ridker PM. Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation. 2003;107(3):363-9.
4. Hatmi ZN, Mahdavi-Mazdeh M, Hashemi-Nazari SS, Hajighasemi E, Nozari B, Mahdavi A. Pattern of coronary artery disease risk factors in population younger than 55 years and above 55 years: a population study of 31999 healthy individuals. Acta Med Iran. 2011;49(6):368-74.
5. Bairey Merz CN, Ramineni T, Leong D. Sex-specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women-making cardiovascular disease real. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2018;33(5):500-5.
6. Paynter NP, Balasubramanian R, Giulianini F, Wang DD, Tinker LF, Gopal S, et al. Metabolic Predictors of Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Women. Circulation. 2018;137(8):841-53.
7. Konst RE, Elias-Smale SE, Lier A, Bode C, Maas AH. Different cardiovascular risk factors and psychosocial burden in symptomatic women with and without obstructive coronary artery disease. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018:2047487318814298.
8. Anderson C, Milne GL, Park YM, Sandler DP, Nichols HB. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and oxidative stress among premenopausal women. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018;115:246-51.
9. Hatmi ZN, Mahdavi-Mazdeh M, Hashemi-Nazari SS, Hajighasemi E, Nozari B, Mahdavi A. Trend of lipid ratios associated with well known risk factors of coronary artery disease in different age: a population based study of 31,999 healthy individuals. Int J Cardiol. 2011;151(3):328-32.
10. Lemieux I, Lamarche B, Couillard C, Pascot A, Cantin B, Bergeron J, et al. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio vs LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio as indices of ischemic heart disease risk in men: the Quebec Cardiovascular Study. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(22):2685-92.
11. Ridker PM, Genest J, Boekholdt SM, Libby P, Gotto AM, Nordestgaard BG, et al. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9738):333-9.
12. Expert Panel on Detection E, Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in A. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;285(19):2486-97.
13. Shai I, Rimm EB, Hankinson SE, Curhan G, Manson JE, Rifai N, et al. Multivariate assessment of lipid parameters as predictors of coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women: potential implications for clinical guidelines. Circulation. 2004;110(18):2824-30.
14. Downs JR, Clearfield M, Weis S, Whitney E, Shapiro DR, Beere PA, et al. Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. JAMA. 1998;279(20):1615-22.
15. deGoma EM, Leeper NJ, Heidenreich PA. Clinical significance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(1):49-55.
16. Sharrett AR, Ballantyne CM, Coady SA, Heiss G, Sorlie PD, Catellier D, et al. Coronary heart disease prediction from lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoproteins A-I and B, and HDL density subfractions: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Circulation. 2001;104(10):1108-13.
17. Ridker PM, Pare G, Parker AN, Zee RY, Miletich JP, Chasman DI. Polymorphism in the CETP gene region, HDL cholesterol, and risk of future myocardial infarction: Genomewide analysis among 18 245 initially healthy women from the Women's Genome Health Study. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2(1):26-33.
18. Yang R, Li L, Seidelmann SB, Shen GQ, Sharma S, Rao S, et al. A genome-wide linkage scan identifies multiple quantitative trait loci for HDL-cholesterol levels in families with premature CAD and MI. J Lipid Res. 2010;51(6):1442-51.
19. Goldenberg I, Boyko V, Tennenbaum A, Tanne D, Behar S, Guetta V. Long-term benefit of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising therapy with bezafibrate: 16-year mortality follow-up of the bezafibrate infarction prevention trial. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(5):508-14.
20. Ferket BS, Colkesen EB, Visser JJ, Spronk S, Kraaijenhagen RA, Steyerberg EW, et al. Systematic review of guidelines on cardiovascular risk assessment: Which recommendations should clinicians follow for a cardiovascular health check? Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(1):27-40.
21. Gulati M, Cooper-DeHoff RM, McClure C, Johnson BD, Shaw LJ, Handberg EM, et al. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in women with nonobstructive coronary artery disease: a report from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation Study and the St James Women Take Heart Project. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(9):843-50.
This journal be published an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits anyone to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.