The Current Status of Genes and Genetic Testing in Emergency Medicine: A Narrative Review
Context: An emergency is any medical problem that could cause death or permanent injury if not treated quickly. In some occasions, the kind of urgent intervention depends on patient’s exact genetic background. Unfortunately, the importance of genes in medical emergencies has been forgotten in recent decades. Evidence acquisition: In order to find relevant articles, we searched two databases of Pubmed and Embase. The exact words of “genes”, “genetics”, “epigenetics”, “DNA”, and “emergency” were used alone and in combination. All studies like randomized clinical trials (RCT), case/controls, case series, case reports, and review articles were studied to find the related data. No time limitation was considered for the studies. Results: Several aspects of genetic testing are newly considered in emergency departments including cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for disease diagnosis, pharmacogenetics for decreasing the adverse drug effects, and personalized medicine for exact emergency interventions in diseases like Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS). Data from genetic testing and genome wide association studies have yielded promising results to make medical emergency interventions more beneficial in the near future. Conclusion: Taking everything into consideration, several advanced genetic and epigenetic alteration technologies can change emergency medicine for the better. Personalized genetic data of patients can turn emergency medicine to personalized medicine.
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