A Review on the Etiology and Management of Pediatric Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries

  • Amira Benmelouka ORCID Faculty of Medicine, University of Algiers, Algiers, Algeria
  • Laila Salah ShamsEldin ORCID Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
  • Anas Zakarya Nourelden ORCID Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Damietta, Egypt
  • Ahmed Negida ORCID Mail Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Keywords:
Child, Neurosurgery, Pediatrics, Spinal Cord Injuries, Trauma

Abstract

Context: Pediatric traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is an uncommon presentation in the emergency department. Severe injuries are associated with devastating outcomes and complications, resulting in high costs to both the society and the economic system. Evidence acquisition: The data on pediatric traumatic spinal cord injuries has been narratively reviewed. Results: Pediatric SCI is a life-threatening emergency leading to serious outcomes and high mortality in children if not managed promptly. Pediatric SCI can impose many challenges to neurosurgeons and caregivers because of the lack of large studies with high evidence level and specific guidelines in terms of diagnosis, initial management and of in-hospital treatment options. Several novel potential treatment options for SCI have been developed and are currently under investigation. However, research studies into this field have been limited by the ethical and methodological challenges. Conclusion: Future research is needed to investigate the safety and efficacy of the recent uprising neurodegenerative techniques in SCI population. Owing to the current limitations, there is a need to develop novel trial methodologies that can overcome the current methodological and ethical limitations.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Lemley K, Bauer P. Pediatric spinal cord injury: Recognition of injury and initial resuscitation, in hospital management, and coordination of care. J Pediatr Intensive Care. 2015;4(1):27-34.
2. Vogel LC, Krajci KA, Anderson CJ. Adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injuries: part 3: impact of medical complications. J Spinal Cord Med. 2002;25(4):297-305.
3. Schottler J, Vogel L, Chafetz R, Mulcahey MJ. Patient and caregiver knowledge of autonomic dysreflexia among youth with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2009;47(9):681-6.
4. Vogel L, Anderson C. Outcomes of adults with pediatric onset spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2005;10(4):109-15.
5. Fehlings MG, Tetreault LA, Wilson JR, Kwon BK, Burns AS, Martin AR, et al. A Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Introduction, Rationale, and Scope. Global Spine J. 2017;7(3 Suppl):84S-94S.
6. Alhuthaifi F, Krzak J, Hanke T, Vogel LC. Predictors of functional outcomes in adults with traumatic spinal cord injury following inpatient rehabilitation: A systematic review. J Spinal Cord Med. 2017;40(3):282-94.
7. Löfvenmark I, Norrbrink C, Nilsson-Wikmar L, Hultling C, Chakandinakira S, Hasselberg M. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Botswana: characteristics, aetiology and mortality. Spinal Cord. 2015;53(2):150-4.
8. Pickett GE, Campos-Benitez M, Keller JL, Duggal N. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Canada. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31(7):799-805.
9. Stein DM, Knight WA 4th. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Traumatic Spine Injury. Neurocrit Care. 2017;27(Suppl 1):170-80.
10. New PW, Baxter D, Farry A, Noonan VK. Estimating the incidence and prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury in Australia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(1):76-83.
11. Knútsdóttir S, Thorisdottir H, Sigvaldason K, Jonsson Jr H, Björnsson A, Ingvarsson P. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injuries in Iceland from 1975 to 2009. Spinal cord. 2012;50(2):123-6.
12. Rahimi-Movaghar V, Saadat S, Rasouli MR, Ganji S, Ghahramani M, Zarei MR, et al. Prevalence of spinal cord injury in Tehran, Iran. J Spinal Cord Med. 2009;32(4):428-31.
13. Cirak B, Ziegfeld S, Knight VM, Chang D, Avellino AM, Paidas CN. Spinal injuries in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39(4):607-12.
14. Reynolds R. Pediatric spinal injury. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2000;12(1):67-71.
15. Parisini P, Di Silvestre M, Greggi T. Treatment of spinal fractures in children and adolescents: long-term results in 44 patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27(18):1989-94.
16. Hamilton MG, Myles ST. Pediatric spinal injury: review of 174 hospital admissions. J Neurosurg. 1992;77(5):700-4.
17. Clark P, Letts M. Trauma to the thoracic and lumbar spine in the adolescent. Can J Surg. 2001;44(5):337-45.
18. Eubanks JD, Gilmore A, Bess S, Cooperman DR. Clearing the pediatric cervical spine following injury. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2006;14(9):552-64.
19. Garg H, Pahys J, Cahill PJ. Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Injuries. InPediatric Orthopedic Surgical Emergencies 2012 (pp. 67-86). Springer, New York, NY.
20. Hall DE, Boydston W. Pediatric neck injuries. Pediatr Rev. 1999;20(1):13-9.
21. Pang D, Sun PP. Pediatric vertebral column and spinal cord injuries. Neurological Surgery. Philadelphia, WB Saunders. 2004:3315-57.
22. Kewalramani LS, Tori JA. Spinal cord trauma in children. Neurologic patterns, radiologic features, and pathomechanics of injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1980;5(1):11-8.
23. Osenbach RK, Menezes AH. Pediatric spinal cord and vertebral column injury. Neurosurgery. 1992;30(3):385-90.
24. Nitecki S, Moir CR. Predictive factors of the outcome of traumatic cervical spine fracture in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1994;29(11):1409-11.
25. Gouti M, Metzis V, Briscoe J. The route to spinal cord cell types: a tale of signals and switches. Trends Genet. 2015;31(6):282-9.
26. Ogden JA. Skeletal Injury in the Child Spine. 1990.
27. Fesmire FM, Luten RC. The pediatric cervical spine: developmental anatomy and clinical aspects. J Emerg Med. 1989;7(2):133-42.
28. Herman MJ, Pizzutillo PD. Cervical spine disorders in children. Orthop Clin North Am. 1999;30(3):457-66.
29. Harris JH, Mirvis SE. The radiology of acute cervical spine trauma. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1996.
30. Swischuk LE. Emergency imaging of the acutely ill or injured child. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
31. Ogden JA. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Skeletal Radiol. 1984;12(3):169-77.
32. Peterson HA. Spine (Vertebral Physeal Endplate). Epiphyseal Growth Plate Fractures. 2007:797-805.
33. Dwek JR, Chung CB. Radiography of Cervical Spine Injury in Children: Are Flexion—Extension Radiographs Useful for Acute Trauma? Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174(6):1617-9.
34. Rathore M, Sharma DK, Sinha MB, Siddiqui AU, Trivedi S. A focused review–Thoracolumbar spine: Anatomy, biomechanics and clinical significance. Indian J Clin Anat Physiol. 2014;1(1):41-7.
35. Anderson DK, Means ED, Waters TR, Green ES. Microvascular perfusion and metabolism in injured spinal cord after methylprednisolone treatment. J Neurosurg. 1982;56(1):106-13.
36. Tubbs RS, Blouir MC, Romeo AK, Mortazavi MM, Cohen-Gadol AA. Spinal cord ischemia and atherosclerosis: a review of the literature. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25(6):666-70.
37. Sekhon LHS, Fehlings MG. Epidemiology, demographics, and pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001:26(24S):S2-12.
38. Kobayashi T. Experimental study on pathological phases of whiplash injury. Nihon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi. 1968;42(1):1-12.
39. Rossignol S, Schwab M, Schwartz M, Fehlings MG. Spinal cord injury: time to move? J Neurosci. 2007;27(44):11782-92
40. Mortazavi MM, Verma K, Deep A, Esfahani FB, Pritchard PR, Tubbs RS, et al. Chemical priming for spinal cord injury: a review of the literature part II—potential therapeutics. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27(8):1307-16.
41. Sun PP, Poffenbarger GJ, Durham S, Zimmerman RA. Spectrum of occipitoatlantoaxial injury in young children. J Neurosurg Spine. 2000;93(1):28-39.
42. Marshall KW, Koch BL, Egelhoff JC. Air bag-related deaths and serious injuries in children: injury patterns and imaging findings. Am J Neuroradiol. 1998;19(9):1599-607.
43. Dickman CA, Papadopoulos SM, Sonntag VK, Spetzler RF, Rekate HL, Drabier J. Traumatic occipitoatlantal dislocations. J Spinal Disord. 1993;6(4):300-13.
44. Mortazavi M, Gore PA, Chang S, Tubbs RS, Theodore N. Pediatric cervical spine injuries: a comprehensive review. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27(5):705-17.
45. Connolly B, Emery D, Armstrong D. The odontoid synchondrotic slip: an injury unique to young children. Pediatr Radiol. 1995;25(Suppl 1):S129-33.
46. Leonard JC. Cervical spine injury. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60(5):1123-37.
47. Horn EM, Lekovic GP, Feiz-Erfan I, Sonntag VK, Theodore N. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities not predictive of cervical spine instability in traumatically injured patients: invited submission from the Joint Section Meeting on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2004. J Neurosurg Spine. 2004;1(1):39-42.
48. Fielding JW, Hawkins RJ. Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation.(Fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977;59(1):37-44.
49. Pang D, Li V. Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation: part 3—a prospective study of the clinical manifestation, diagnosis, management, and outcome of children with alantoaxial rotatory fixation. Neurosurgery. 2005;57(5):954-72.
50. Torg JS, Corcoran TA, Thibault LE, Pavlov H, Sennett BJ, Naranja RJ, et al. Cervical cord neurapraxia: classification, pathomechanics, morbidity, and management guidelines. J Neurosurg. 1997;87(6):843-50.
51. Torg JS, Pavlov HE, Genuario SE, Sennett B, Wisneski RJ, Robie BH, et al. Neurapraxia of the cervical spinal cord with transient quadriplegia. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68(9):1354-70.
52. Tat ST, Mejia MJ, Freishtat RJ. Imaging, clearance, and controversies in pediatric cervical spine trauma. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014;30(12):911-5.
53. Pollack Jr CV, Hendey GW, Martin DR, Hoffman JR, Mower WR, NEXUS Group. Use of flexion-extension radiographs of the cervical spine in blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;38(1):8-11.
54. Easter JS, Barkin R, Rosen CL, Ban K. Cervical spine injuries in children, part I: mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, and imaging. J Emerg Med. 2011;41(2):142-50.
55. Hale AT, Alvarado A, Bey AK, Pruthi S, Mencio GA, Bonfield CM, et al. X-ray vs. CT in identifying significant C-spine injuries in the pediatric population. Childs Nerv Syst. 2017;33(11):1977-83.
56. Schenarts PJ, Diaz J, Kaiser C, Carrillo Y, Eddy V, Morris Jr JA. Prospective comparison of admission computed tomographic scan and plain films of the upper cervical spine in trauma patients with altered mental status. J Trauma. 2001;51(4):663-9.
57. Flynn JM, Closkey RF, Mahboubi S, Dormans JP. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of pediatric cervical spine injuries. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002;22(5):573-7.
58. Kaiser ML, Whealon MD, Barrios C, Kong AP, Lekawa ME, Dolich MO. The current role of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing cervical spine injury in blunt trauma patients with negative computed tomography scan. Am Surg. 2012;78(10):1156-60.
59. Ngatchou W, Beirnaert J, Lemogoum D, Bouland C, Youatou P, Ramadan AS, et al. Application of the Canadian C-Spine rule and nexus low criteria and results of cervical spine radiography in emergency condition. Pan Afr Med J. 2018;30:157.
60. Fockens MM, Wang J, Maas M, Wilson DJ, Goslings JC, Schep NW, et al. Triage tools for detecting cervical spine injury in pediatric trauma patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;12:CD011686.
61. Pang D, Wilberger JE. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities in children. J Neurosurg. 1982;57(1):114-29.
62. Dreizin D, Kim W, Kim JS, Boscak AR, Bodanapally UK, Munera F, et al. Will the real SCIWORA please stand up? Exploring clinicoradiologic mismatch in closed spinal cord injuries. Am J Roentgenol. 2015;205(4):853-60.
63. Panagopoulos D. A Case of SCIWORA with Uncommon Combination of Neurological and Imaging Findings. EC Paediatr.2018;6:498-506.
64. Boese CK, Nerlich M, Klein SM, Wirries A, Ruchholtz S, Lechler P. Early magnetic resonance imaging in spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in adults: a retrospective study. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;74(3):845-8.
65. Trigylidas T, Yuh SJ, Vassilyadi M, Matzinger MA, Mikrogianakis A. Spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormality at two pediatric trauma centers in Ontario. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2010;46(4):283-9.
66. Mahajan P, Jaffe DM, Olsen CS, Leonard JR, Nigrovic LE, Rogers AJ, et al. Spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality in children imaged with magnetic resonance imaging. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;75(5):843-7.
67. Boese CK, Oppermann J, Siewe J, Eysel P, Scheyerer MJ, Lechler P. Spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(4):874-82.
68. Shank CD, Walters BC, Hadley MN. Management of acute traumatic spinal cord injuries. InHandbook of clinical neurology 2017 Jan 1 (Vol. 140, pp. 275-298). Elsevier.
69. Seid T, Ramaiah R, Grabinsky A. Pre–hospital care of pediatric patients with trauma. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2012;2(3):114-20.
70. Huerta C, Griffith R, Joyce SM. Cervical spine stabilization in pediatric patients: evaluation of current techniques. Ann Emerg Med. 1987;16(10):1121-6.
71. Kliegman R. Nelson W. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 2016.
72. Morparia K, Berg J, Basu S. Confidence level of pediatric trainees in management of shock states. World J Crit care Med. 2018;7:31-8
73. Hadley MN, Walters BC, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, et al. Clinical assessment following acute cervical spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery. 2013;72(suppl_3):40-53.
74. Kirshblum SC, Burns SP, Biering-Sorensen F, Donovan W, Graves DE, Jha A, et al. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury (revised 2011). J Spinal Cord Med. 2011;34(6):535-46.
75. Burns AS, Lee BS, Ditunno JF, Tessler A. Patient Selection for Clinical Trials: The Reliability of the Early Spinal Cord Injury Examination. J Neurotrauma. 2003;20(5):477-82.
76. DeVivo MJ, Black KJ, Stover SL. Causes of death during the first 12 years after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1993;74(3):248-54.
77. Chng YM, Sagarin M, Chiang V, Walls R. Pediatric emergency airway management. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11(5):438-9.
78. Li J, Murphy-Lavoie H, Bugas C, Martinez J, Preston C. Complications of emergency intubation with and without paralysis. Am J Emerg Med. 1999;17(2):141-3.
79. Yamamoto LG. Emergency airway management–rapid sequence intubation. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. 2010:74-84.
80. Gerardi MJ, Sacchetti AD, Cantor RM, Santamaria JP, Gausche M, Lucid W, et al. Rapid-sequence intubation of the pediatric patient. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;28(1):55-74.
81. Mathias CJ. Orthostatic hypotension and paroxysmal hypertension in humans with high spinal cord injury. Prog Brain Res. 2006;152:231-43.
82. Claydon VE, Steeves JD, Krassioukov A. Orthostatic hypotension following spinal cord injury: Understanding clinical pathophysiology. Spinal Cord. 2006;44(6):341-51.
83. Mathias CJ, Christensen NJ, Frankel HL, Peart WS. Renin Release during Head-up Tilt Occurs Independently of Sympathetic Nervous Activity in Tetraplegic Man. Clin Sci. 1980;59(4):251-6.
84. Teasell RW, Arnold JMO, Krassioukov A, Delaney GA. Cardiovascular consequences of loss of supraspinal control of the sympathetic nervous system after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(4):506-16.
85. Thompson AJ, McSwain SD, Webb SA, Stroud MA, Streck CJ. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the pediatric trauma population. J Pediatr Surg. 2013;48(6):1413-21.
86. Satkunendrarajah K, Nassiri F, Karadimas SK, Lip A, Yao G, Fehlings MG. Riluzole promotes motor and respiratory recovery associated with enhanced neuronal survival and function following high cervical spinal hemisection. Exp Neurol. 2016;276:59-71.
87. Bagriyanik HA, Ozogul C, Alaygut E, Gokmen N, Kucukguclu S, Gunerli A, et al. Neuroprotective effects of ketorolac tromethamine after spinal cord injury in rats: an ultrastructural study. Adv Ther. 2008;25(2):152-8.
88. Norimatsu Y, Ohmori T, Kimura A, Madoiwa S, Mimuro J, Seichi A, et al. FTY720 improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury by primarily nonimmunomodulatory mechanisms. Am J Pathol. 2012;180(4):1625-35.
89. Süzer T, Coskun E, Islekel H, Tahta K. Neuroprotective effect of magnesium on lipid peroxidation and axonal function after experimental spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(7):480-4.
90. Kaptanoglu E, Beskonakli E, Solaroglu I, Kilinc A, Taskin Y. Magnesium sulfate treatment in experimental spinal cord injury: emphasis on vascular changes and early clinical results. Neurosurg Rev. 2003;26(4):283-7.
91. Lee JM, Yan P, Xiao Q, Chen S, Lee KY, Hsu CY, et al. Methylprednisolone protects oligodendrocytes but not neurons after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2008;28(12):3141-9.
92. Gaviria M, Privat A, d’Arbigny P, Kamenka JM, Haton H, Ohanna F. Neuroprotective effects of a novel NMDA antagonist, Gacyclidine, after experimental contusive spinal cord injury in adult rats. Brain Res. 2000;874(2):200-9.
93. Feldblum S, arnaud S, simon M, rabin O, d'Arbigny PI. Efficacy of a new neuroprotective agent, gacyclidine, in a model of rat spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2000;17(11):1079-93.
94. Geisler FH, Dorsey FC, Coleman WP. Recovery of motor function after spinal-cord injury—a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with GM-1 ganglioside. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(26):1829-38.
95. Bracken MB. Summary statement: The Sygen®(GM-1 Ganglioside) clinical trial in acute spinal cord injury. Spine. 2001;26(24S):S99-100.
96. Penn RD, Savoy SM, Corcos D, Latash M, Gottlieb G, Parke B, et al. Intrathecal baclofen for severe spinal spasticity. N Engl J Med. 1989;320(23):1517-21.
97. Penn RD, Kroin JS. Long-term intrathecal baclofen infusion for treatment of spasticity. J Neurosurg. 1987;66(2):181-5.
98. Torres BB, Caldeira FM, Gomes MG, Serakides R, de Marco Viott A, Bertagnolli AC, et al. Effects of dantrolene on apoptosis and immunohistochemical expression of NeuN in the spinal cord after traumatic injury in rats. Int J Exp Pathol. 2010;91(6):530-6.
99. Aslan A, Cemek M, Buyukokuroglu ME, Altunbas K, Bas O, Yurumez Y, et al. Dantrolene can reduce secondary damage after spinal cord injury. Eur Spine J. 2009;18(10):1442-51.
100. Han ZA, Song DH, Oh HM, Chung ME. Botulinum toxin type A for neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Ann Neurol. 2016;79(4):569-78.
101. Nance PW, Bugaresti J, Shellenberger K, Sheremata W, Martinez-Arizala A. Efficacy and safety of tizanidine in the treatment of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. North American Tizanidine Study Group. Neurology. 1994 Nov;44(11 Suppl 9):S44-51.
102. Brown GL, Duffell LD, Mirbagheri MM. Classifying and predicting endurance outcomes of α 2-adrenergic agonist intervention in spinal cord injury. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:5896-9.
103. Behrman AL, Ardolino EM, Harkema SJ. Activity-based therapy: from basic science to clinical application for recovery after spinal cord injury. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2017;41(Suppl 3 IV STEP Spec Iss): S39-45.
104. Teeter L, Gassaway J, Taylor S, LaBarbera J, McDowell S, Backus D, et al. Relationship of physical therapy inpatient rehabilitation interventions and patient characteristics to outcomes following spinal cord injury: the SCIRehab project. J Spinal Cord Med. 2012;35(6):503-26.
105. Edgerton VR, Tillakaratne NJ, Bigbee AJ, de Leon RD, Roy RR. Plasticity of the spinal neural circuitry after injury. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2004;27:145-67.
106. Harkema SJ, Schmidt-Read M, Behrman AL, Bratta A, Sisto SA, Edgerton VR. Establishing the NeuroRecovery Network: multisite rehabilitation centers that provide activity-based therapies and assessments for neurologic disorders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93(9):1498-507.
107. Calhoun CL, Schottler J, Vogel LC. Recommendations for mobility in children with spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2013;19(2):142-51.
108. Roy RR, Harkema SJ, Edgerton VR. Basic concepts of activity-based interventions for improved recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93(9):1487-97.
109. Ota T, Akaboshi K, Nagata M, Sonoda S, Domen K, Seki M, et al. Functional assessment of patients with spinal cord injury: measured by the motor score and the Functional Independence Measure. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(9):531-5.
110. Xiong T, Hartley S. Challenges in linking health-status outcome measures and clinical assessment tools to the ICF. Adv Physiother. 2008;10(3):152-6.
111. Ardolino EM, Mulcahey MJ, Trimble S, Argetsinger L, Bienkowski M, Mullen C, et al. Development and initial validation of the pediatric Neuromuscular Recovery Scale. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2016;28(4):416-26.
112. Özkan N, Wrede K, Ardeshiri A, Sariaslan Z, Stein KP, Dammann P, et al. Management of traumatic spinal injuries in children and young adults. Childs Nerv Syst. 2015;31(7):1139-48.
113. Birney TJ, Hanley ENJ. Traumatic cervical spine injuries in childhood and adolescence. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1989;14(12):1277-82.
114. Sherk HH, Schut L, Lane JM. Fractures and dislocations of the cervical spine in children. Orthop Clin North Am. 1976;7(3):593-604.
115. Eleraky MA, Theodore N, Adams M, Rekate HL, Sonntag VK. Pediatric cervical spine injuries: report of 102 cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2000;92(1):12-7.
116. Duhem R, Tonnelle V, Vinchon M, Assaker R, Dhellemmes P. Unstable upper pediatric cervical spine injuries: report of 28 cases and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24(3):343-8.
117. Stulík J, Nesnídal P, Kryl J, Vyskočil T, Barna M. Unstable injuries to the upper cervical spine in children and adolescents. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2013;80(2):106-13.
118. Cofano F, Boido M, Monticelli M, Zenga F, Ducati A, Vercelli A, Garbossa D. Mesenchymal stem cells for spinal cord injury: current options, limitations, and future of cell therapy. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(11):E2698.
119. Vizoso FJ, Eiro N, Cid S, Schneider J, Perez-Fernandez R. Mesenchymal stem cell secretome: toward cell-free therapeutic strategies in regenerative medicine. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(9):E1852.
120. Boido M, Piras A, Valsecchi V, Spigolon G, Mareschi K, Ferrero I, et al. Human mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation modulates neuroinflammatory milieu in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cytotherapy. 2014;16(8):1059-72.
121. Yuan X, Logan TM, Ma T. Metabolism in Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Missing Link Between hMSC Biomanufacturing and Therapy? Front Immunol; 2019;10:977.
122. Jeon SR, Park JH, Lee JH, Kim DY, Kim HS, Sung IY, et al. Treatment of spinal cord injury with bone marrow-derived, cultured autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2010;7(3):316-22.
123. El-Kheir WA, Gabr H, Awad MR, Ghannam O, Barakat Y, Farghali HA, et al. Autologous bone marrow-derived cell therapy combined with physical therapy induces functional improvement in chronic spinal cord injury patients. Cell Transplant. 2014;23(6):729-45.
124. Chua SJ, Bielecki R, Yamanaka N, Fehlings MG, Rogers IM, Casper RF. The effect of umbilical cord blood cells on outcomes after experimental traumatic spinal cord injury. Spine. 2010;35(16):1520-6.
125. Caron I, Rossi F, Papa S, Aloe R, Sculco M, Mauri E, et al. A new three dimensional biomimetic hydrogel to deliver factors secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells in spinal cord injury. Biomaterials. 2016;75:135-47.
126. Bottai D, Scesa G, Cigognini D, Adami R, Nicora E, Abrignani S, et al. Third trimester NG2-positive amniotic fluid cells are effective in improving repair in spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2014;254:121-33.
127. Gao S, Ding J, Xiao HJ, Li ZQ, Chen Y, Zhou XS, Wang JE, Wu J, Shi WZ. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of combined treatment with methylprednisolone and amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells after spinal cord injury in rats. Neurochem Res. 2014;39(8):1544-52.
128. Menezes K, Nascimento MA, Gonçalves JP, Cruz AS, Lopes DV, Curzio B, et al. Human mesenchymal cells from adipose tissue deposit laminin and promote regeneration of injured spinal cord in rats. PloS one. 2014;9(5):e96020.
129. Jin MC, Medress ZA, Azad TD, Doulames VM, Veeravagu A. Stem cell therapies for acute spinal cord injury in humans: a review. Neurosurg Focus. 2019;46(3):E10.
130. Ahuja CS, Fehlings M. Concise review: bridging the gap: novel neuroregenerative and neuroprotective strategies in spinal cord injury. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016;5(7):914-24.
131. Ikegami T, Nakamura M, Yamane J, Katoh H, Okada S, Iwanami A, Watanabe K, Ishii K, Kato F, Fujita H, Takahashi T. Chondroitinase ABC combined with neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation enhances graft cell migration and outgrowth of growth‐associated protein‐43‐positive fibers after rat spinal cord injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22(12):3036-46.
132. Carter LM, McMahon SB, Bradbury EJ. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC reverses chronic atrophy of rubrospinal neurons following spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:149-56.
133. Bartus K, James ND, Didangelos A, Bosch KD, Verhaagen J, Yáñez-Muñoz RJ, et al. Large-scale chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan digestion with chondroitinase gene therapy leads to reduced pathology and modulates macrophage phenotype following spinal cord contusion injury. J Neurosci. 2014;34(14):4822-36.
134. Freund P, Schmidlin E, Wannier T, Bloch J, Mir A, Schwab ME, et al. Nogo-A–specific antibody treatment enhances sprouting and functional recovery after cervical lesion in adult primates. Nat Med. 2006;12(7):790-2.
135. Liebscher T, Schnell L, Schnell D, Scholl J, Schneider R, Gullo M, Fouad K, Mir A, Rausch M, Kindler D, Hamers FP. Nogo‐A antibody improves regeneration and locomotion of spinal cord–injured rats. Ann Neurol. 2005;58(5):706-19.
136. Meininger V, Pradat PF, Corse A, Al-Sarraj S, Brooks BR, Caress JB, et al. Safety, pharmacokinetic, and functional effects of the nogo-a monoclonal antibody in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomized, first-in-human clinical trial. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97803.
137. Meininger V, Genge A, van den Berg LH, Robberecht W, Ludolph A, Chio A, et al. Safety and efficacy of ozanezumab in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16(3):208-16.
138. Tsai EC, Dalton PD, Shoichet MS, Tator CH. Matrix inclusion within synthetic hydrogel guidance channels improves specific supraspinal and local axonal regeneration after complete spinal cord transection. Biomaterials. 2006;27(3):519-33.
139. Stokols S, Tuszynski MH. Freeze-dried agarose scaffolds with uniaxial channels stimulate and guide linear axonal growth following spinal cord injury. Biomaterials. 2006;27(3):443-51.
140. Taylor SJ, McDonald JW 3rd, Sakiyama-Elbert SE. Controlled release of neurotrophin-3 from fibrin gels for spinal cord injury. J Control Release. 2004;98(2):281-94.
141. Johnson PJ, Parker SR, Sakiyama-Elbert SE. Controlled release of neurotrophin-3 from fibrin-based tissue engineering scaffolds enhances neural fiber sprouting following subacute spinal cord injury. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104(6):1207-14.
142. Mothe AJ, Tam RY, Zahir T, Tator CH, Shoichet MS. Repair of the injured spinal cord by transplantation of neural stem cells in a hyaluronan-based hydrogel. Biomaterials. 2013;34(15):3775-83.
143. Shen YH, Shoichet MS, Radisic M. Vascular endothelial growth factor immobilized in collagen scaffold promotes penetration and proliferation of endothelial cells. Acta Biomater. 2008;4(3):477-89.
144. Leipzig ND, Xu C, Zahir T, Shoichet MS. Functional immobilization of interferon-gamma induces neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;93(2):625-33.
145. Gupta D, Tator CH, Shoichet MS. Fast-gelling injectable blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose for intrathecal, localized delivery to the injured spinal cord. Biomaterials. 2006;27(11):2370-9.
Published
2019-10-10
How to Cite
1.
Benmelouka A, ShamsEldin L, Nourelden A, Negida A. A Review on the Etiology and Management of Pediatric Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries. Adv J Emerg Med. 4(2):e28.
Section
Review article