Analgesic Effects of Ketamine Nebulizer vs. Intravenous Morphine in Limb Trauma Patients in Pre-Hospital Emergency Setting; A Randomized Double-Blinded Clinical Trial
Background: Limb trauma is one the main causes of emergency room (ER) referrals and patients often complain of pain from the very moment of arrival. Objective: We decided to compare the analgesic effect of ketamine nebulizer with intravenous (IV) morphine in trauma patients referred to ER. Methods: In this clinical trial study trauma patients referred to ER of Alzahra and Kashani hospitals in Isfahan, Iran were selected. All trauma patients older than 18 years with limb pain who had a pain score ≥ 7 based on visual analogue scale (VAS) criteria were included. During pre-hospital management, patients were divided into two groups of receiving ketamine nebulizer with a dose of 1.6 mg/kg and receiving IV morphine with a dose of 0.1 mg/kg. Pain score, vital signs and complications were recorded 5 and 15 minutes after receiving the first dose of drug and also at the time of arrival to ER. Results: Finally, the records of 391 patients were analysed. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of pain intensity, vital signs before intervention, the first 5 and 15 minutes after and the time of arrival in ER (P>0.05). But the changing of VAS scores in different times was significant in both groups (P<0.001). There was a significant difference between the two groups in complications including nausea and vomiting (P<0.001), and also delirium (P=0.010). Conclusion: Using ketamine nebulizer can produce similar analgesic effects as IV morphine in trauma patients referred to ER.
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