The Effects of Different Doses of Submucosal vs. Intravenous Ketamine for Conscious-sedation in Children Candidates for Diagnostic-Therapeutic Procedures in Emergency Department
Introduction: Ketamine is a commonly used medicine for reducing pain and stress in patients, including children in emergency department (ED). The intravenous (IV) injection of ketamine is gold standard though difficult in children, but other routes are also possible. Objective: This study was conducted to compare the effects of the submucosal at different doses versus IV injections of ketamine on sedation with proper consciousness in children candidates for diagnostic-therapeutic procedures in ED. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted with 4 groups; groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively received 4, 3 and 2 mg/kg of submucosal ketamine and group four 1.5 mg/kg of IV ketamine. Eligible subjects selected from 46 patients of children’s age as the candidates for subcutaneous wound healing were randomly assigned to the four groups and followed up 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes after the injection. The Ramsay score was obtained by measuring the heart rate, the breathing rate, the time to start affecting and duration of the effect. The data were ultimately analyzed in SPSS and Excel. Results: The baseline data were matched and confounding variables eliminated included age, gender, weight and hemodynamics. Compared to other doses of submucosal ketamine, 4 mg/kg was found to exert its effect the fastest (4.08±1.01 minutes) (p<0.05) and for the longest duration (23.09±1.12 minutes) (p<0.05). The Ramsay score in groups 1 and 4, i.e. 5.9, was significantly higher than that in groups 2 and 3 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that 4 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg of submucosal ketamine are appropriate alternatives to IV ketamine. Although the time to start affecting was shorter in the intravenous group compared to in the other groups, the duration of the effect was the longest with 4 mg/kg of submucosal ketamine. Surgeon satisfaction scores were found to be very good and not significantly different between groups 1, 2 and 4. Vomiting was also prevalent with no significant differences between the four groups.
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