Professional Resilience among Trauma Emergency Department Nurses in Iran: A Qualitative Study
Introduction: Nursing staff’s professional resilience plays an important role in overcoming the stressful and adverse situations common to the trauma emergency department and helps to achieve positive outcomes. Objective: This study intended to explore the concept of resiliency among Iranian trauma emergency department nurses. Methods: Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 21 trauma emergency department nurses and analysed through a deductive content analysis based on the general conceptual model of resilience derived from King and Rothstein’s study. Results: All codes were nested into the four main categories of the above-mentioned model including: 1) Personal characteristics; 2) Opportunities, supports and resources; 3) Self-regulatory processes; 4) Positive outcomes. Some new sub-categories including Professional abilities (sub-category of Personal characteristics) and Cooperation with colleagues and Volunteers’ declaration of readiness (sub-categories of opportunities, supports and resources) were developed in this study. In the positive outcomes category, three sub-categories including Improved professional abilities, Personal growth, and Job retention were developed. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Iranian trauma emergency department nurses could achieve positive outcomes using specific affective, cognitive, and behavioural personality traits, professional abilities and effective external supports from different resources during self-regulatory processes. It is suggested that nurses should be selected for work in the emergency department based on appropriate characteristics and skills.
2. Uscher-Pines L, Pines J, Kellermann A, Gillen E, Mehrotra A. Deciding to visit the emergency department for non-urgent conditions: a systematic review of the literature. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19(1):47-59.
3. Healy S, Tyrrell M. Stress in emergency departments: experiences of nurses and doctors. Emerg Nurse. 2011;19(4):31-7.
4. Frankenberger WD. Work related stress, social support, and engagement as predictors of resilience in emergency department nurses: Widener University School of Nursing; 2014.
5. Sorenson C, Bolick B, Wright K, Hamilton R. Understanding compassion fatigue in healthcare providers: A review of current literature. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2016;48(5):456-65.
6. Lim J, Bogossian F, Ahern K. Stress and coping in Australian nurses: a systematic review. Int Nurs Rev. 2010;57(1):22-31.
7. Theodosius C. Emotional labour in health care: The unmanaged heart of nursing: Routledge; 2008.
8. Scrymgeour GC, Smith L, Paton D. Exploring the Demands on Nurses Working in Health Care Facilities During a Large-Scale Natural Disaster: Often an Invisible Role Within a Highly Visible Event. SAGE Open. 2016;6(2):2158244016655587.
9. Jackson D, Firtko A, Edenborough M. Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: a literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2007;60(1):1-9.
10. King GA, Rothstein, M. G. Resilience and leadership: the self-management of failure. In R. J. B. Mitchell Grant Rothstein (Ed.) Self-management leadership development. UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; 2010. p. 361-94.
11. Fisher DM, Ragsdale JM, Fisher EC. The importance of definitional and temporal issues in the study of resilience. Appl Psychol. 2019;68(4):583-620.
12. McLarnon MJ, Rothstein MG. Development and initial validation of the Workplace Resilience Inventory. J Pers Psychol. 2013;12(2):63-73.
13. Ablett JR, Jones RSP. Resilience and well‐being in palliative care staff: a qualitative study of hospice nurses' experience of work. Psychooncology. 2007;16(8):733-40.
14. Mealer M, Jones J, Newman J, McFann KK, Rothbaum B, Moss M. The presence of resilience is associated with a healthier psychological profile in intensive care unit (ICU) nurses: Results of a national survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012;49(3):292-9.
15. McDonald G, Jackson D, Wilkes L, Vickers M. Personal resilience in nurses and midwives: effects of a work-based educational intervention. Contemp Nurse. 2013;45(1):134-43.
16. Hegney DG, Rees CS, Eley R, Osseiran-Moisson R, Francis K. The contribution of individual psychological resilience in determining the professional quality of life of Australian nurses. Front Psychol. 2015;6:1613.
17. Matos PS, Neushotz LA, Griffin MTQ, Fitzpatrick JJ. An exploratory study of resilience and job satisfaction among psychiatric nurses working in inpatient units. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2010;19(5):307-12.
18. Lin CC, Liang HF, Han CY, Chen LC, Hsieh CL. Professional resilience among nurses working in an overcrowded emergency department in Taiwan. Int Emerg Nurs. 2019;42:44-50.
19. Elo S, Kyngäs H. The qualitative content analysis process. J Adv Nurs. 2008;62(1):107-15.
20. Hsieh H-F, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005;15(9):1277-88.
21. Polit DF, Beck CT. Essential of Nursing Research:Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.
22. McGee EM. The healing circle: resiliency in nurses. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2006;27(1):43-57.
23. Delgado C, Upton D, Ranse K, Furness T, Foster K. Nurses’ resilience and the emotional labour of nursing work: An integrative review of empirical literature. Int J Nurs Stud. 2017;70:71-88.
24. Gillespie BM, Chaboyer W, Wallis M. Development of a theoretically derived model of resilience through concept analysis. Contemp Nurse. 2007;25:124-35.
25. Hart PL, Brannan JD, De Chesnay M. Resilience in nurses: an integrative review. J Nurs Manag. 2014;22(6):720-34.
26. Hauser ST, Allen JP, Golden E. Out of the woods: Tales of resilient teens: Harvard University Press; 2009.
27. Hartmann S, Weiss M, Newman A, Hoegl M. Resilience in the workplace: A multilevel review and synthesis. Appl Psychol. 2019;0(0):1-47.
28. Guo YF, Cross W, Plummer V, Lam L, Luo YH, Zhang JP. Exploring resilience in Chinese nurses: a cross‐sectional study. J Nurs Manag. 2017;25(3):223-30.
29. Ren Y, Zhou Y, Wang S, Luo T, Huang M, Zeng Y. Exploratory study on resilience and its influencing factors among hospital nurses in Guangzhou, China. Int J Nurs Sci. 2018;5(1):57-62.
30. Williamson GR, Health V, Proctor-Childs T. Vocation, friendship and resilience: a study exploring nursing student and staff views on retention and attrition. Open Nurs J. 2013;7:149-56.
31. Beauvais AM, Stewart JG, DeNisco S, Beauvais JE. Factors related to academic success among nursing students: A descriptive correlational research study. Nurse Educ Today. 2014;34(6):918-23.
32. Koen MP, Van Eeden C, Wissing MP. The prevalence of resilience in a group of professional nurses. Health SA Gesondheid. 2011;16(1):1-11.
33. Cameron F, Brownie S. Enhancing resilience in registered aged care nurses. Australas J Ageing. 2010;29(2):66-71.
34. Jensen PM, Trollope-Kumar K, Waters H, Everson J. Building physician resilience. Can Fam Physician. 2008;54(5):722-9.
35. Yang Y, Danes SM. Resiliency and resilience process of entrepreneurs in new venture creation. Entrepreneurship Res J. 2015;5(1):1-30.
36. Tubbert SJ. Resiliency in emergency nurses. J Emerg Nurs. 2016;42(1):47-52.
37. Burns E, Poikkeus A-M, Aro M. Resilience strategies employed by teachers with dyslexia working at tertiary education. Teach Teach Educ. 2013;34:77-85.
38. Hsieh HF, Chen YM, Wang HH, Chang SC, Ma SC. Association among components of resilience and workplace violence‐related depression among emergency department nurses in Taiwan: a cross‐sectional study. J Clin Nurs. 2016;25(17-18):2639-47.
39. Russo C, Calo O, Harrison G, Mahoney K, Zavotsky KE. Resilience and coping after hospital mergers. Clin Nurse Spec. 2018;32(2):97-102.
40. Lamb D, Cogan N. Coping with work‐related stressors and building resilience in mental health workers: A comparative focus group study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. J Occup Organ Psychol. 2016;89(3):474-92.
41. Knight J, Corbett A, Smith C, Watkins B, Hardy R, Jones G. “What made me stay?” A review of the reasons student nurses enrolled in a Bachelor of Nursing programme completed their studies: A descriptive phenomenological study. Nurse Educ Today. 2012;32(8):e62-5.
42. Rutter M. Annual research review: Resilience–clinical implications. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54(4):474-87.
43. Happell B, Reid-Searl K, Dwyer T, Caperchione CM, Gaskin CJ, Burke K. How nurses cope with occupational stress outside their workplaces. Collegian. 2013;20(3):195-9.
44. Todt G, Weiss M, Hoegl M. Mitigating negative side effects of innovation project terminations: The role of resilience and social support. J Prod Innovat Manag. 2018;35(4):518-42.
45. Förster C, Duchek S. What makes leaders resilient? An exploratory interview study. Ger J Hum Resour Manag. 2017;31(4):281-306.
46. Kuntz J, Connell P, Näswall K. Workplace resources and employee resilience: the role of regulatory profiles. Career Dev Int. 2017;22(4):419-35.
47. Stevenson AD, Phillips CB, Anderson K. Resilience among doctors who work in challenging areas: a qualitative study. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61(588):e404-10.
48. Sommer SA, Howell JM, Hadley CN. Keeping positive and building strength: The role of affect and team leadership in developing resilience during an organizational crisis. Group Organ Manag. 2016;41(2):172-202.
49. Brennan EJ. “Towards Resilience and Wellbeing in Nurses.” Br J Nurs. 2017;26(1):43-7.
50. Simmons S. Striving for work-life balance. Am J Nurs. 2012;112(1 Suppl):25-6.
51. Luthans F AB, Avey JB, Norman SM. Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Pers Psychol. 2007;60(3):541-72.
52. Youssef CM, Luthans F. Positive organizational behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. J Manag. 2007;33(5):774-800.
53. Mache S, Vitzthum K, Wanke E, David A, Klapp BF, Danzer G. Exploring the impact of resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and organizational resources on work engagement. Work. 2014;47(4):491-500.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.